# Music in Changeringing

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Music in changeringing is measured by the musical properties of individual rows contained in a touch, and the sequence in which rows are rung. The sequence in which rows are generated is determined by the choice of method; consequently one will hear people say things like "Bristol [Surprise] is a musical method" or "that was a very musical touch of Stedman". The reason for this is that people like the way that a particular method generates repetitions and rotations of a subset of bells within the rows, without actually causing any real repetition of rows which would render the touch false.

For example, the first lead of a plain course of Bristol Surprise Major is:

``` 12345678  Rounds
21436587  Combination near miss
12346857  1234 cascade (little bell run), 6857 is a musical combination
21438675
24136857  pairs in musical thirds (2&4, 1&3, 6&8, 5&7)
42316587
24135678  5678 roll up
42315768
24351786
32541786
35247168
53427618  pairs in musical thirds (5&3, 2&4)
35246781
32547618
23456781  2345678 run (encompassing a 2345 cascade and an internal 5678 roll up)
24365871  Wrap of a combination near miss (1-2436587)
42638517
46235871
64328517
46238157
42631875  pairs in musical thirds (4&2, 5&7)
24368157
23461875
32416857  6857 is a musical combination (consecutive thirds)
23146587
32415678  5678 roll up
23145768
21347586  7586  is a musical combination (reverse of 6857)
12435768  Combination near miss
21345678  5678 roll up
12436587  Combination near miss
14263857
```

As we move up the stages (increasing numbers of bells), we ring only a subset of the available rows e.g. a quarter of the available rows in a quarterpeal of Triples. So on higher stages, the composition becomes important as well as the method, as the composer can select, within the constraints of method construction and falseness, courses of the method containing better musical combinations. This is not to say that there are not musical touches of Doubles and Minor, but the composer's choices are fairly limited. In an extent of a particular method, the only significant variable is whether the rows occur at handstroke or backstroke.

At odd stages, methods are commonly rung with the tenor covering. This creates very distinctive music resulting from the constant beat set by the tenor ringing last in every row. Compositions in methods such as Grandsire and Stedman typically focus on turning sets of bells into a musical sequence (e.g. Tittums, Queens, Handstroke or Backstroke Homes) and then repeating that sequence for a number of courses before turning them into another musical combination.

The remainder of this article covers individual musical features, their nomenclature, definition and examples of how they are used.

## Roll-ups

A row where the back bells are in the rounds position eg xxxx567890 on ten bells. Note that xxxxxx7890 would also be referred to as a roll-up, as would xxxxxxx90, so the term is often qualifed e.g. 5-6, 7-8 or 9-10 roll-up. The term roll-up is often assumed under compositions e.g. 20 56s & 20 65s means 20 5-6 roll ups and 20 6-5 roll-ups.

## Combination roll-ups (crus)

The number of combinations of 4,5 & 6 in 5-6 with heavier bells rolling up i.e. the rows xxxx5678, xxxx6578, xxxx4578, xxxx5478, xxxx4678 and xxxx6478, with a maximum of 144 possible. crus have limited value on more than eight bells, but counts are commonly given after compositions of Major and Royal.

## Runs / little bell runs

A run is any four or more bells in rounds sequence, forwards or backwards. It can be at the beginning, the middle, or the end of a row (the norm unless otherwise stated). Since there is not a formal definition for counting purposes, compositions typically list them specifically (e.g. 16 23456s and 36 5432s). Some composers count using terms such as LB4s and LB5s referring to four and five little bell runs, however the lack of formal definition of a little bell means that it is unclear what counts as a LB4 or LB5 (some including up to the 7th to include runs such as 76543 and 34567).

## Off the front

Musical combinations measured at the front of the row rather than the back e.g. the row 56782143 has a 5678 roll up off the front.

## At handstroke or backstroke

As most changeringing is rung with a handstroke gap, musical combinations sound different depending whether they are at handstroke or backstroke. At backstroke, a combination at the end of the row is more clearly defined than at handstroke,as it is followed by a pause. Conversely, a combination at the front is more clearly defined at handstroke. Some compositions state whether the combinations of runs occur at back or hand.

A measure for little bell music, particularly useful on higher numbers i.e. the rows ending in ...1234, ...2345, ...3456, ...4321, ...5432, and ...6543. Like crus, there is maximum of 144 on eight bells, but on higher stages the maximum is also higher. They can also be counted off the front i.e. 1234..., 2345..., 3456... etc.

## The Waterfall course

The course with the coursing order 24653, that generates rows ending ...23456 at backstroke in most even bell methods with Plain Bob coursing. The coursehead is 164523... Particularly popular on higher numbers, musically it is most satisfying on ten bells as the front six bells form their own major key group with the sixth as the tenor.

## Near misses

A near miss is defined as any row that differs from rounds merely by having one adjacent pair of bells exchanged. On N bells there are always N-1 near misses possible.

So, for example, for caters, the eight possible near misses are

``` 213456789, 132456789, 124356789, 123546789,
123465789, 123457689, 123456879, 123456798
```

If more than one pair of adjacent bells is swapped, it has been proposed that this be called a combination near miss.

## Named rows

A few musical rows have been given names e.g. Rounds, Backrounds, Tittums, Queens, Whittingtons, Kings and Hagdyke. See row for definitions. Compositions often state when they contain named rows e.g. contains 144 crus, Queens, Whittingtons and Tittums.

## Tittums / Handstroke Homes

In odd bell ringing, Tittums is used not just to refer to the named row, but also the Tittums position. This is the position where the back bells course down in rounds sequence to create a slow rounds effect e.g. XXXX5X6X7X8X9X0xExT with the gap to the tenor behind gradually increasing.

Another popular odd-bell position is the Handstroke Home, giving a very pleasing effect as back bells come back into the rounds position at handstroke. A large number of compositions of Grandsire and Stedman finish in this position, hence the odd number of changes.

## Wraps

A wrap is a musical row that is split over a handstroke and a backstroke. For example, every method with Plain Bob leadheads contains the following wrap of reverse rounds:

``` 18765432 handstroke
18674523 backstroke
```

Another good one is the Whittingtons near-miss in the first lead of Double Norwich CBM. Listen out for it next time you ring the method - it sounds lovely:

``` 64821753 handstroke
46812735 backstroke
```

Wraps are only effective if they cross a handstroke-backstroke change, because otherwise the handstroke gap interrupts them.

## Undesirable music

As well as including leads of methods in compositions with musical rows, composers can avoid including undesirable rows. What is undesirable is often hotly debated, and there is less concensus than on what constitutes a musical row. The most common example is that many ringers like to avoid having the tenors reversed at backstroke (e.g. xxxxxx87s at backstroke). However, there are methods that have the tenors reversed at backstroke in their plain course (e.g. March Surprise Major).

Many compositions of Bristol Surprise Major produced in and around the 1970's used to quote no 82s and no 83s. These were considered untuneful because if struck together they would be a discordant 7th or 6th intervals. However, many of these compositions would be considered inferior today because the practice of avoiding 82s and 83s also elimimated some of the best little bell music e.g. the waterfall course, with its 23456s as well as 83s.